Deep Web

What is tdeep-web-linkshe Deep web ?

The deep web or hidden web is the part of the Web accessible online, but not indexed by traditional search engines like Google, Yahoo or bing.. and not accessible using standard browsers like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox…The Deep web can be reached with TOR.

TOR ( The Onion On Router) is free software and an open network that helps you defend against traffic analysis, a form of network surveillance that threatens personal freedom and privacy, confidential business activities and relationships, and state security. Tor protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location.

with such protection we quickly understand why this obscure part of the internet also called darknet is full of the drug traffic related sites, pedophilia, stolen credit card … and many other illegal things.

The Deep Web can be divided into levels:

First Level: Surface Web

Is the Internet, the usual web, what we surf in our day to day life. The websites that can be accessed directly or are listed by a search engine like Google, Yahoo, Bing, etc. and don’t require any proxy service to connect.

Second  Level: Bergie Web 

Is the Internet that is not indexed by search-engines, directly accessible and no proxy required. In this level, you can find “underground” sites but still indexed as 4chan, Freehive, 1eden, Black Hat World … or FTP servers and also the  blocked Google search results … This level is the last freely accessible level, all levels that follow  can be accessed with a proxy / VPN, Tor or by  modifying your hardware.

Third Level: Deep Web 

The third level onwards Deep Web starts, no search-engines are able to index these sites and they need some sort of proxy network like Tor, I2P, freenet or JonDo to become accessible. Although this is the Deep Web, most content on level 3 is publicly accessible (with proxy) without any sort of restrictions.

Fourth Level: Charter Web 

This level is also divided into two parts,

The first can be accessed through the Tor network, it contains such things as drugs and human trafficking, banned films and books, black markets … Includes the Hidden Wiki (usually the first website you will access when trying to get into the deep web), which is like the deep web website that contains the link for MANY other charter web websites.

Websites become more restrictive and begin using stronger security measures like registration & login, invite only memberships, open only for a specific time and/or dates, restricted to certain IP addresses, or a combination of the above, etc. Unlike most websites, they are not interested in maximizing traffic hits and keep a very low profile even in the Deep Web

The second part is accessed by a hardware modification: a “CSS” “Shell closed system” and contains over 80% of the web, not in volume but in concentration of information, this part of the web charter contains unconditional PC, information on the experimental material (“Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Electronic Quantum Processors” …), and also dark information, such as the “Law 13”, the experiences of World War II, and even the location of Atlantis .

These comprise of a single computer or a network of systems that are not connected to any external network at all. They can only be accessed from within the network. It is not possible to connect to these systems unless the attacker can physically access these systems. Many companies have sensitive internal networks that are behind a firewall (green zone), that is a different scenario and is still considered insecure in this context. The CSS networks have no physical (wired or wireless) connections to any other network. What these types of networks contain is left to the reader’s imagination.

Fifth Level: Marianas’ Web

About this level , I read many thing about it : (From level 5 to 8 )

For some :We dont have to go there! is a Mystery, it is only imaginative and are extremely difficult (if not impossible) to verify. For others : It’s just quantum computing, accessible by governments and that is why we can not enter this part of the web. For you : leave a comment to share !

More detail with this graph…

Weblevels

Question 132 : What’s the difference between Diffie-Hellman and RSA

téléchargementRSA encryption  is an asymmetric cryptography algorithm, widely used in electronic commerce and more generally to exchange confidential data on the Internet. Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman developed RSA, and it is named from the first letters of their last names (RSA). This algorithm was described in 1977 and has been patented by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1983 in the United States. The patent expired on 21 September 2000: This description responds to the fifth question our list of ” 300 infoSec Questions”:Question 5 What does RSA stand for ?

I do not know about you, but I thought in my head: they are still alive? when I saw Adi Shamir, Ronald Rivest, Whitfield Diffie, in the cryptographers’ Panel  at the RSA Conference 2015. Not that I wish they are no longer of this world, but instead, it’s just that when you have learned from books inventions and scope, subconsciously you think that inventors are certainly no longer alive, I do not know why but there is the impression we have. So I wish long life to these Gents !

Going back to our definition ; RSA is a cryptosystem for public-key encryption , and it is widely used on the internet and elsewhere due to its strong security . Asymmetric encryption methods use RSA : For example, e-mail applications often use RSA to privately share a symmetric key between two systems. The application uses the recipient’s public key to encrypt a symmetric key, and the recipient’s private key decrypts it.

Diffie–Hellman  (Whitfield Diffie – Martin Hellman ) key exchange is based on the premise that two correspondents, Alice and Bob, wish to communicate a secret number, but must do so on an insecure channel. An unauthorized user, Eve, is trying to intercept the message over the unsafe channel. If Eve obtains the message containing the key, all integrity and confidentiality is lost. This issue is resolved by masking the key using modular arithmetic. Diffie – Hellman is used to generate a shared secret in public for later symmetric (“private-key”) encryption.

 Remember this

RSA is an asymmetric algorithm used to encrypt data and digitally sign transmissions.. RSA is widely used to protect Internet traffic, including e-mail. RSA relies on the mathematical properties of prime numbers when creating public and private keys.These keys are commonly used with asymmetric encryption to privately share a symmetric key .Diffie-Hellman addresses key management and provides another method to privately share a symmetric key between two parties.

Dig Deeper  

(Those who knows Insanity Workout with Shaun T. knows what’s Dig deeper mean …so instead to dig deep in our body’s resources we have to Dig deep in our brain !!! 😉 )

RSA udownloadses the mathematical properties of prime numbers to generate secure public and private keys. Specifically, RSA relies on the fact that the product of two large prime numbers can’t be easily factored. The strength of the RSA depends on the difficulty of the prime number factorization. For applications with high-level security, the number of the decryption key bits should be greater than 512 bits.  The math is complex and intriguing to mathematicians, but you don’t have to understand the math to understand that RSA is secure.

For example, researchers published a paper in 2010 identifying how long it took to factor a 232-digit number (768 bits). They wrote that it took them about two and a half years using hundreds of systems. They estimated that if a single 2.2 GHz computer was used, it would take fifteen hundred years to complete. RSA is used on the Internet as one of the protections for credit card transactions. It’s safe to say that today’s credit card information won’t be of much value in fifteen hundred years.

RSA uses at least 1024-bit keys today. RSA Security (a company that frequently tests the security of RSA) recommends using key sizes of at least 2048 bits long, and 3072-bit keys are on the horizon.

RSA is used to come up with a public/private key pair for asymmetric (“public-key”) encryption:

RSA:

  • Used to perform “true” public-key cryptography
  • Key identity: (me)d = m   (mod n)   (lets you recover the encrypted message)
  • Where:
    • n = prime1 × prime2    (n is publicly used for encryption)
    • φ = (prime1 – 1) × (prime2 – 1)   (Euler’s totient function)
    • e is such that 1 < e < φ, and (e, φ) are coprime    (e is publicly used for encryption)
    • d × e = 1   (mod φ)    (the modular inverse d is privately used for decryption)

Diffie-Hellman is a key exchange algorithm used to privately share a symmetric key between two parties. Once the two parties know the symmetric key, they use symmetric encryption to encrypt the data.

The Diffie–Hellman key exchange is based on the premise that two correspondents, Alice and Bob, wish to communicate a secret number, but must do so on an insecure channel. An unauthorized user, Eve, is trying to intercept the message over the unsafe channel. If Eve obtains the message containing the key, all integrity and confidentiality is lost. This issue is resolved by masking the key using modular arithmetic. Alice and Bob achieve secrecy by agreeing on a large prime number, p, and a base number, n. Alice will choose a personal, private value, a, which remains unknown to Bob.94224Bob will generate a secret value only known to himself, b. It is important that a and b are less than p. Alice and Bob’s respective secret keys should be relatively prime to n, meaning that neither shares common factors with n. Alice’s public value is na mod p and Bob’s is nb mod p. The two correspondents exchange their public values, so that both parties now know both. Alice will compute nab = (nb)a mod p. Bob will compute nba = (na)b mod p. Once both algorithms are computed, each party will have the same number. Alice and Bob are now able to privately communicate on the insecure network.

Diffie-Hellman is used to generate a shared secret in public for later symmetric (“private-key”) encryption:

Diffie-Hellman:

  • Creates a shared secret between two (or more) parties, for subsequent symmetric encryption
  • Key identity: (gens1)s2 = (gens2)s1 = shared secret   (mod prime)
  • Where:
    • gen is an integer whose powers generate all integer in [1, prime)   (mod prime)
    • s1 and s2 are the individuals’ “secrets”, only used to generate the symmetric key

Remember this:

RSA is used to come up with a public/private key pair for asymmetric (“public-key”) encryption.Diffie-Hellman is used to generate a shared secret in public for later symmetric (“private-key”) encryption.

Src: Security+ Study Guide -Darril Gibson ;  Information Security Fundamentals – Peltier, Thomas R.

Finland Victim of Hacking

images (8)Finland claims to be hack by many governments !

Unspecified foreign powers damaged Finland’s national interests by obtaining a vast quantity of Finland’s foreign policy documents through a sophisticated and long-term cyberespionage campaign, Finnish officials said Wednesday.

The Finnish Security Intelligence Service (FSIS) has detected and foiled two distinct penetrations of the Finnish foreign ministry’s computer network, the service’s chief, Antti Pelttari, said in a webcast news conference.

The ministry’s internal network was hacked with an information-gathering program which kept forwarding foreign ministry documents undetected to servers outside Finland for several years, Mr. Pelttari said.

Source: The Wall Street Journal

Am I infected ?

Cyberthreats Realtime Map is a  visual tool allows users to see what is going on in cybersecurity around the world in real time.

This wonderful tool is built by Kaspersky Network Security Lab . That prove that  malicious hackers are constantly attacking networks, companies and even individuals.

Real-time cyberthreat map exposes  global threat in real time that can be seen like that:

kasperksy-map-3

This is just a  short introduction post about this tool , we will come back soon.

Here is Kaspersky link to watch the realtime map.

Enjoy it !!! and catch a picture for your desired country .